Scientific Papers and Articles

Australopithecus africanus — The word “Australopithecus” means “southern ape. Raymond Dart, professor of anatomy at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, was the first to study these fossils. In at Taung in South Africa, Dart discovered a fossil skull consisting of a full face, teeth and jaws, and an endocranial cast of the brain. The brain size was cc. Its age is currently felt to be around two to three million years old. Dart was convinced that some teeth were man-like and thus concluded a transition between apes and man. His opinions on the matter of this particular skull were largely scorned by the scientists of this time who considered it nothing more than a young chimpanzee now considered to be about three years of age. The skull was soon known derisively as “Dart’s baby. With Piltdown Man’s human cranium and apelike jaw, it was hard to reconcile it to the Taung Child. Although Dart gave up fossil hunting for some time, all was not lost.

Chronological dating

Renaissance Now, let’s look at some specific examples. One type of atom that does not normally react is Neon. See the picture to the left. It already has the correct number of electrons in it’s outside electron layer so Neon does not react. Neon, along with Helium and Argon are known as non-reacting gasses because they do not need to react to be stable.

Amino acid geochronology is a relative dating technique able to span the whole can be applied to a range of common materials which are directly related to the human occupation of an archaeological site, for example mollusc shells and ostrich eggshells.

To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. For most of the last century, a prevailing theory within the field of nutrition was that by eating acid-forming foods such as meat , we were, in essence, at risk of peeing our bones down the toilet. Experiments dating back to showed over and over that if you add meat to the diet, you get a big spike in the amount of calcium being lost in the urine.

And so, this made total sense; we had known since that meat was acid-forming within the body. And, how do you buffer acid? What are in antacid pills, anti-acid pills—like Tums? Meat and eggs have a lot of sulphur-containing amino acids two to five times more than grains and beans that are metabolized into sulphuric acid, which the body buffers with calcium.

Calcium can buffer acid.

Ten Reasons Evolution is Wrong

AAR, Protein diagenesis geochronology Definition A method for estimating the relative age since death by assessing the extent of postmortem conversion of biological chiral forms of amino acids l-enantiomers to their nonbiological counterparts d-enantiomers. Introduction Amino acid racemization AAR dating is a geochronological technique with a very long history.

Over the past 60 years, many researchers and laboratories around the world have been involved with the development of the method and its application to diverse environments.

Introduction • Amino acid Racemization is a dating technique that examines the extent of degradation in a certain type of biomolecules called Amino acids. • used in the field of archaeology, paleobiology, molecular paleontology, forensic science, taphonomy and sedimentary geology • relates the changes of amino acid molecules in a specimen to the time elapsed since its death to estimate.

Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case, the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity.

It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others. Nevertheless, the range of time within archaeological dating can be enormous compared to the average lifespan of a singular human being. As an example Pinnacle Point ‘s caves, in the southern coast of South Africa , provided evidence that marine resources shellfish have been regularly exploited by humans as of , years ago.

It was the case of an 18th-century sloop whose excavation was led in South Carolina United States in

Alkaline Diets, Animal Protein, & Calcium Loss

Temperature and humidity histories of microenvironments are being produced at ever increasing rates as technologies advance and technologists accumulate data. These are important for amino acid dating because racemization occurs much faster in warm, wet conditions compared to cold, dry conditions. Temperate to cold region studies are much more common than tropical studies, and the steady cold of the ocean floor or the dry interior of bones and shells have contributed most to the accumulation of racemization dating data.

Generally, they are not assumed to have a great impact in the natural environment, though tephrochronological data may shed new light on this variable. The enclosing matrix is probably the most difficult variable in amino acid dating. This includes racemization rate variation among species and organs, and is affected by the depth of decomposition, porosity, and catalytic effects of local metals and minerals.

Amino acid racemization (AAR) dating offers the potential to obtain high-resolution ages for samples less than years old (Goodfriend, ), but has yet to be applied to chronological.

It introduces the men whose efforts ultimately helped STURP obtain permission to perform the scientific examination of the Shroud. Dorothy was the Publisher and Editor of Shroud Spectrum International, the first peer reviewed journal in the United States dedicated exclusively to the study of the Shroud Sindonology. This presentation was originally delivered at the Esopus Conference.

English with a preface in Italian language. Finding the Shroud in the 21st Century by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino This is the earliest paper by Benford and Marino December proposing their theory of a rewoven and anomalous sample site used for the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud Fire and the Portrait, The by Jack Markwardt – Czech Translation by professional translator Daniela Milton – Now available in the Ukrainian Language [10 October ] This paper proposes to resolve, and to reconcile, two of the Shroud’s most tantalizing mysteries: When and how did it incur the fire damage now generally referred to as the “poker holes” and when and why was it converted into the portrait known as the Image of Edessa.

This paper was originally delivered at the Turin Symposium. It includes four detailed color photographic closeups of the burn holes discussed in this paper, as well as the transmitted light image of the Shroud mentioned in the footnotes.

Alkaline Diets, Animal Protein, & Calcium Loss

Can science prove the age of the earth? No scientific method can prove the age of the earth and the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Further, it has to be assumed that the clock was never disturbed. There is no independent natural clock against which those assumptions can be tested. For example, the amount of cratering on the moon, based on currently observed cratering rates, would suggest that the moon is quite old. However, to draw this conclusion we have to assume that the rate of cratering has been the same in the past as it is now.

a method for dating organic matter that is based on the fact that amino acids progressively change to mirror image forms following the death of an organism–i.e., from L-amino acid to D-amino acid forms. Aspartic acid in organic samples is commonly used for this dating technique. Amino acid racemization could be considered to be a chronometric or a calibrated relative dating method.

Evidence for Creation At a widely publicized news conference in August of , Dr. Jeffrey Bada of Scripps Institute of Oceanography announced the “discovery” of a new dating method based on the rate of racemization of amino acids in fossil material. He was quoted as saying that he had discovered the basis of the method in , and that it was so obvious and simple he was amazed it hadn’t been discovered earlier. As a matter of fact, the basis of this method had been discovered earlier and had been reported in a series of papers published by Hare, Mitterer and Abelson in , , and About 20 different kinds of amino acids are found in proteins.

Each amino acid has two chemical groups, an amino group and a carboxyl group, which can form chemical bonds with other amino acids. The amino group of one amino acid can combine with the carboxyl group of a second amino acid to form a “peptide” bond, and its carboxyl group can combine with the amino group of a third amino acid, and the chain can thus be extended indefinitely. The amino acids combine with each other like the links of a chain to form a long protein chain.

Amino acid dating

At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way.

At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.

The development of amino acid racemization as a dating technique holds considerable promise for resolving questions of human evolution and culture histories.

Racemization occurs when one pure form of an enantiomer is converted into equal proportion of both enantiomers, forming a racemate. When there are both equal numbers of dextrorotating and levorotating molecules, the net optical rotation of a racemate is zero. Physical properties[ edit ] Racemate may have different physical properties from either of the pure enantiomers because of the differential intermolecular interactions see Biological Significance section.

The change from a pure enantiomer to a racemate can change its density, melting point, solubility, heat of fusion, refractive index, and its various spectra. Biological significance[ edit ] In general, most biochemical reactions are stereoselective, so only one stereoisomer will produce the intended product while the other simply does not participate or can cause side-effects.

Of note, the L form of amino acids and the D form of sugars primarily glucose are usually the biologically reactive form. This is due to the fact that many biological molecules are chiral and thus the reactions between specific enantiomers produce pure stereoisomers. However, bacteria produce D -amino acid residues that polymerize into short polypeptides which can be found in bacterial cell walls.

These polypeptides are less digestible by peptidases and are synthesized by bacterial enzymes instead of mRNA translation which would normally produce L -amino acids. Many psychotropic drugs show differing activity or efficacy between isomers, e. Thalidomide as the R enantiomer is effective against morning sickness , while the S enantiomer is teratogenic , causing birth defects when taken in the first trimester of pregnancy.

If only one enantiomer is administered to a human subject, both forms may be found later in the blood serum. Likewise, the S stereoisomer is much more reactive than the R enantiomer in citalopram Celexa , an antidepressant which inhibits serotonin reuptake, is active.

Racemization

Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity. It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others.

Nevertheless, the range of time within archaeological dating can be enormous compared to the average lifespan of a singular human being. As an example Pinnacle Point ‘s caves, in the southern coast of South Africa , provided evidence that marine resources shellfish have been regularly exploited by humans as of , years ago.

Amino acid racemization dating is a technique that is based on chemical acids occur in two chiral forms they are not superposable on their mirror acids are optically active, which means that a plane of polarized light will be rotated while passing through the substance.

Even slight ranges of error in determining the “temperature history” of a specimen will result in huge “age” calculation errors. Calibrating for even a known temperature history also seems to be rather problematic. Consider that the rate of racemization for various amino acids is determined by placing a protein into a very high temperature environment between 95o and o C and then extrapolating these results to low temperature environments. We argue that the D: This means that the equilibrium ratio may be off from ” So, the amino acid racemization AAR rates not only change with the effects of temperature, but also with the concurrent effects of pH changes, which are themselves affected by temperature.

The local buffering effects of bone and shell matrixes are supposed to limit this effect, but it is still something to consider as potentially significant when acting over the course of tens of thousands to millions of years. Also, the actual physical structure of an intact protein significantly affects the rate of racemization of various amino acids. In fact, in many cases this may even be a more significant factor than the temperature history.

As it turns out, the N-terminal amino acids racemize faster than the C-terminal amino acids of the same types. Also, the surface amino acids racemize much faster than the interior amino acids.

How to date archaeology sites if you don’t have carbon: OSL 101 Lowery 5874